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When cattle came to a slope, their hooves chewed the ground up as they tried to slow down or gain purchase.  The disturbed soil was washed away by rain and over years the road sank to the bedrock.  The holloway in pic #1 is on Anthony Whitmill's land (Claydon Hill Farm) near North Newington, Banbury.

Where the ground becomes harder then softer then harder again, the road undulates.  The troughs are where it is softest (see pic #2, but the undulation is not clear at all!).

Holloways image 1
Claydon Hill Farm
Holloways image 2
Oxford Lane at Oving Hill